top of page

Mental Illness



Laptop and Plant

Catatonic Symptoms



Carroll, B. T. "Kahlbaum's catatonia revisited." Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 55, no. 5 (October 2001):431-6.  

Pfuhlmann, B., and G. Stober. "The different conceptions of catatonia: historical overview and critical discussion." European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 251 Supplement 1 (2001):14-7.  

Proenca M, Marques F, Cardoso D, Fonseca C. Catatonia as an Internal Medicine Disease: Infrequent or Still Under-diagnosed? BMJ Case Reports. 2016. doi:10.1136/bcr-2015-214233.  

Tandon R, Heckers S, Bustillo J, et al. Catatonia in DSM-5. Schizophrenia Research. 2013;150:26-30. Sarkstein, S. E., J. C. Golar, A. Hodgkiss. "Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum's concept of catatonia." History of Psychiatry 6, no. 22, part 2 (June 1995): 201-7.  


American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edition, text revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.


American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author. Wilcox JA and Duffy PR.


The Syndrome of Catatonia. Behavioral Sciences. December 2015;5(4):576-588. Kaplan, Harold I., MD and Benjamin J. Sadock, MD.  

Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences/Clinical Psychiatry. 8th edition. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 1998. Sacks, Oliver. Awakenings. New York: HarperPerennial, 1990.  


American Psychiatric Association. 1400 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20002. (202) 336-5500.  

Mental Illness Foundation. 420 Lexington Avenue, Suite 2104, New York, NY 10170. (212) 682-4699.  

National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI). 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 302, Arlington, VA 22201.  

National Mental Health Association. 1021 Prince Street, Alexandria, VA, 22314. (703) 684-7722. Barbara Sternberg, Ph.D. 

Books and Branch


Heritability of Schizophrenia and Schizophrenia Spectrum Based on the Nationwide Danish Twin Register: Rikke Hilker1,(2017) 

 Scheike, et al: Estimating heritability for cause specific mortality based on twin studies. (2014)  

Nordentoft et al: Excess mortality, causes of death and life expectancy in 270,770 patients with recent onset of mental disorders in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. (2013)  

Sullivan, P.F., Daly, M.J., O’Donovan, M. Genetic architectures of psychiatric disorders: The emerging picture and its implications. (2012)  

Van Os, J., Kenis, G., Rutten, B.P.F.: The environment and schizophrenia (2010) 

bottom of page